The Taliban has been waging a counter-insurgency campaign against Isis in recent months
The bomb exploded during Friday prayers in a mosque in the town of Traili outside the provincial capital Jalalabad, said Taliban spokesperson for Nangarhar province Qari Hanif.
While the province, which includes a Sunni majority population, is facing increasing shootings and bombings from the Islamic State terrorist group, attacks on mosques in the area are rare. Afghanistan’s Shiite minority have been the Isis target for mosque bombings.
The Taliban have been waging a counter-insurgency campaign against the Isis in recent months after it took control of Afghanistan.
In September, a string of roadside explosions struck Taliban vehicles in Jalalabad, killing at least eight people, including Talibani fighters.
On Wednesday, the Taliban said that 600 Isis members have been arrested in the last three months.
At least 33 Isis members have been killed in gun battles with Taliban security forces, said Taliban spokesperson Khalil Hamraz. Several cars rigged with explosives and suicide vests were also seized before they could be detonated.
While both the Isis and the Taliban believe in a hard line interpretation of Islam, the Taliban has focused on controlling Afghanistan, while the Isis wants global jihad. Both groups share some violent tactics like suicide bombings, but are known to be enemies.
Additional reporting by agencies