英国的失信如何让阿富汗人在恐怖中生活了一年并且还在增加

英国的失信如何让阿富汗人在恐怖中生活了一年并且还在增加
一年前喀布尔陷落时, 英国承诺接纳那些因与英国军队合作而面临报复的人. 反而, 成千上万的人仍在等待他们是否能够摆脱塔利班的魔掌. 他们告诉梅布尔曼他们觉得他们只是在等待死亡的到来

C蜷缩在一个小地下室的角落里 接受, Mohamed* 被恐惧吞噬. 在地下独自度过的几个小时, 他无法阻止自己的思想误入可怕的可能性:, 尽管他尽最大努力保持隐藏, 他很快就会被抓获, 被折磨——甚至被杀.

这位 38 岁的老人在英军服役 赫尔曼德省 之间 2010 和 2015 作为阿富汗领土部队的中尉 444 – 被称为“444s” – 创建, 培训和资助 英国军队, 并被前英国军官称赞为在“战斗的矛头” 塔利班. 穆罕默德确信圣战组织正在寻找他. 自一年前塔利班接管该国以来, 他在同一个单位服役的朋友被抓获并遭受酷刑——有些人失踪了——他说. 他害怕他是下一个.

阿富汗国民在他的手机上分享图片来证明这一点. 图像显示男性生, 覆盖腿部和背部的水泡烧伤, 愤怒的瘀伤覆盖手臂和伤口紧紧包扎. 他的两个前同事现在被关押了两个月, 他说——没人知道他们在哪里.

<p>“感觉就像我坐着等待我的死亡来临,’前阿富汗士兵穆罕默德说</p>磷

“感觉就像我坐着等待我的死亡来临,’前阿富汗士兵穆罕默德说

“感觉就像我坐着等待我的死亡来临,”穆罕默德说, 他的声音在颤抖. “情况每天都在恶化, 塔利班对特种部队毫不留情. 我是一个明确的目标. 如果他们逮捕我, 他们会在酷刑后杀了我。”

他住在他姐姐的地下室, 他只留下去洗. 亲朋好友来访时, 他还在楼下. “你现在不能相信任何人,“ 他说. “任何人都可能成为塔利班间谍。”

穆罕默德有妻子和三岁的儿子, 但他们住在不同的省份,他很少能见到他们. 自从塔利班上台以来,他说住在他们家并不安全. 他们每隔几周就会去他姐姐家, 当财政允许时, 与他分享珍贵的时刻, 但这还不足以阻止他拼命想念他们.

一年前喀布尔陷落的今天, 穆罕默德和他的家人试图在喀布尔登上撤离航班. 然而, 在混乱中, 士兵告诉他们没有空位,他们必须向 阿富汗搬迁援助警察 (阿拉伯), 英国从该国重新安置前当地员工的计划.

他这样做了, 但 10 几个月后——七月 2022 - 穆罕默德收到拒绝. 他的申请被拒绝了,理由是他“没有受雇于 阿富汗 由英国政府部门”和/或他的就业“没有导致威胁到 [他的] 生活”.

他的拒绝不仅让他感到难以置信,而且让曾在 444 部队服役或熟悉他们在打击塔利班中所扮演的角色的前英国军官也不敢相信。.

查理赫伯特, 前英国陆军少将, 谁监督了 444 的发展 2017-18, 表示英国不接受在该部队服役的阿富汗人将是“彻底的讽刺”, 他形容他是“战斗的先锋”.

<p>美国撤离喀布尔后,塔利班武装分子在哈米德卡尔扎伊国际机场前站岗, 31 2021 年 8 月</p>磷

美国撤离喀布尔后,塔利班武装分子在哈米德卡尔扎伊国际机场前站岗, 31 八月 2021

“他们与英国顾问并肩作战,是我们在赫尔曼德省的军事行动中不可或缺的一部分. 他们训练有素, 真有能力. 他们对塔利班造成的损耗和破坏程度非常显着,“ 他加了. “塔利班正在追捕这些人. 他们不会原谅他们. 他们都应该搬迁. 令人沮丧的是,一年后有证据表明人们被拒绝. 他们应该是优先事项。”

因拒绝而动摇, 穆罕默德现在不知所措. “没想到英国人会这样回应我们. 我在英国国旗下忠实地工作了多年, 日日夜夜. 现在他们像对待动物一样对待我,“ 他说. “感觉没有人关心我们, 尽管我们如此忠诚。”

穆罕默德是数以万计根据 ARAP 提出申请但仍留在该国的阿富汗人之一, 经常生活在恐惧中, 喀布尔沦陷一年后. 绝大多数人仍在等待决定. 周围的 100,000 自该计划于 4 月启用以来提出的申请 2021, 完了 10,000 已被接受并搬迁. 不知道有多少被拒绝,有多少被接受; 慈善机构和律师说大多数人根本没有回应.

‘为什么他们忘记了我们?’

当塔利班占领阿富汗时, 英国承认与英国有联系的人将处于危险之中,需要紧急撤离. 在操作点蚀期间, 英国大规模撤离, 一些 14,000 阿富汗人被空运出国,但后来发现只有在 5,000 其中有资格获得 ARAP. 动物慈善机构的阿富汗工作人员, 诺扎德, 由前英国皇家海军陆战队经营, 获得签证和协助出国, 尽管不属于任何“有风险”标准, 而许多符合 ARAP 资格的阿富汗人却被抛在了后面.

前外交部官员拉斐尔·马歇尔 吹口哨 关于12月撤离的混乱. 他作证说,在一个无法处理这种情况的系统中,受到威胁的阿富汗人发出的数以万计的求助请求没有得到回应. 下议院外交事务委员会 5 月对“坑坑行动”的诅咒分析 2022 发现“完全没有撤离支持英国任务的阿富汗人的计划” […] 尽管知道 18 在阿富汗崩溃前几个月,可能需要撤离”. 选择那些有资格撤离的人的“仓促”努力“设计不当, 管理, 并配备人员”, 导致“迫切需要救援”的阿富汗合作伙伴因政府“领导层的严重失败”而“彻底失望”, 报告发现.

事情只会从那里变得更糟. ARAP 计划下的处理速度显着放缓, 只有 678 12 月前从疏散中搬迁的人. 在此刻, 资格标准再次缩小, 仅限于那些为英国工作或与英国一起工作的人,并且可以证明他们“在阿富汗面临一定程度的风险”或他们“促进了英国的军事和国家安全目标”. 大约 2,000 到目前为止,人们已根据该计划搬迁 2022 - 但活动人士表示,鉴于等待决定的人数众多,这一数字非常低. 还有人担心高危人群, 像穆罕默德一样, 被错误地拒绝.

ARAP 人员不足可能会导致这一点. 独立 直到今年三月才明白, 国防部一直在通过从该部其他部门招募员工来为该计划配备人员, 并没有招聘任何新员工来处理申请. 自三月以来, 35 新的工作人员已经开始, 从本月开始还有七个, 根据国防部. 目前有 85 在 ARAP 团队工作的全体员工, 根据政府上个月公布的数据. 国防部消息人士告诉 独立 那些从国防部其他部门征召入伍的人每隔几个月就会被替换一次, 几乎没有时间积累经验.

这让人很难堪. 我们背弃了为我们辩护的人

保守党议员努斯拉特·加尼

不可避免地与对 乌克兰难民危机, 这是由 弗拉基米尔普京喀布尔沦陷后不到六个月就入侵该国. 虽然英国对寻求避难的乌克兰人激增的反应并不完美, 为应对危机而设计的两项计划—— 乌克兰家庭计划Homes for Ukraine scheme – have brought 10 times the number of people to the UK at 99,700. The difference in resources is also stark. Government figures show that last month, 有 540 Home Office staff members working on the Ukrainian applications.

“It’s in huge contrast to what’s being done for the Ukrainians,” says Conservative MP Nusrat Ghani, who says she has been inundated with messages from Afghans begging for help. “It’s embarrassing. We’re turning our backs on people who have defended us.”

在此之上, the MoD said last month that it believes that only 2,000 of the applicants who have pending decisions “actually worked” with the British and that the department is focusing on bringing these people out, rather than processing the other applications.

This approach has been criticised by campaigners, who say this cohort of 2,000 consists only of people who are in touch with officials in the UK government or senior members of the army – leaving behind many who are at risk due to their work for Britain but don’t have contacts in high places.

The government says those who are not accepted under ARAP should apply to the Afghan Citizens Resettlement Scheme, a Home Office programme which opened in January to allow up to 20,000 refugees to settle in the UK, 和 5,000 in the first year. 然而, it emerged in February that around 6,500 of the places had been given to Afghans evacuated during Operation Pitting – meaning it has already surpassed its target for the first 12 月.

‘My wife and children begged them to stop’

Ikram still has dark marks on his arms and shoulders from where he was brutally beaten by members of the Taliban two months ago. Like Mohamed, the 33-year-old also served in the Afghan Territorial Force 444. He had been at home alone when Taliban members clattered through his door and captured him for the work he did with Western forces. He spent two weeks imprisoned, during which he endured torturous treatment, causing “real damage” to his body.

“There were several people – one of them had put his foot on my neck, the other was sitting on my legs,” he remembers. “One of them repeatedly asked me which forces were you working with, and the other was hitting me with a chain. It was a very dark place. I could not see how they were torturing me, but it was very cruel. It was very threatening. They behaved like wild animals.”

The Afghan national was eventually released when the Taliban came under pressure from the “elders” in the community to let him go, but he is terrified of being caught again. He fears that next time the outcome could be worse. He is now in hiding at his uncle’s home and hasn’t been able to see his wife and five children – aged between two and 12 – since his capture.

Ikram applied to the ARAP scheme more than nine months ago and is still waiting for a response. After hearing about Mohamed’s refusal, his hope is fading. “It is really painful for me. It has been two months or more since I saw my family,“ 他说. “How can we continue to live? I am ruined. I am a fugitive from home. Why did the British government and our international friends leave us here alone? We served shoulder to shoulder with them for years. Why have they forgotten about us?”

Dan Jarvis, Labour MP for Barnsley Central and a former British army major who served in Afghanistan alongside the 444s, called on the UK to “pay the debt we owe” to those who worked with the British.

“The prime minister promised, ‘we would do whatever we can to ensure that those who have not yet come out get the safe passage they need.’ But nearly one year on from the fall of Kabul, hundreds of members of the Afghan unit I helped establish are still waiting for their applications to be processed so they can come to the UK,“ 他说. “Many are on the run from the Taliban, living in constant fear of being kidnapped, tortured and murdered. No wonder they feel betrayed.

<p>British Army troops left Afghanistan last year, but left behind many of their Afghan colleagues </磷>

British Army troops left Afghanistan last year, but left behind many of their Afghan colleagues

“These men stepped forward to serve because we asked them. Instead of providing the sanctuary they deserve, the government has turned its back. Ministers need to urgently address the failures in the system, clear the backlog and pay the debt we owe.”

Sarah Fenby Dixon, a consultant on Afghanistan at Global Witness, which is supporting ARAP applicants and advocating for the process to be sped up, says they are not the only ones. “Hundreds of those who worked alongside British forces in Afghanistan, and were given implicit promises of protection by the British government, are in hiding, often separated from their families, knowing they are being hunted by the Taliban,”她解释说.

“They are hiding in basements, in the mountains, they can’t go to work to feed their children. Many have been arrested, tortured and disappeared because of their link to UK forces. The men I’m in contact with feel a deep connection with the British government and they feel betrayed and left behind. A year after the Taliban takeover, it is a matter of urgency that the UK government speed up the ARAP process and bring these people to safety.”

An MoD spokesperson said the ARAP continued to relocate eligible Afghans and work to “bring out as many people as we can on a regular basis”. They said applications were considered on a case-by-case basis, 添加: “Processing timelines can vary due to the complexity and personal circumstances of each applicant.”

‘Whatever the Taliban want to do, they can do’

Zafar, 31, who worked as an interpreter with the British army for five years until 2014, is growing increasingly terrified that he could face the same fate as Ikram – or worse. The father of four says he is living in a suburban province, apart from his wife and young children, in order “to stay alive”. He works in a small pharmacy to earn a small amount of money to send to his family, but each time he goes outside he feels at risk.

He had applied to the ARAP scheme before the fall of Kabul and, on the assumption that they would be prioritised, he and his family had tried to reach Kabul airport to board an evacuation flight. 然而, they were apprehended by the Taliban, and he says they beat him on the street.

They started beating me in front of my family, my kids. My wife and children begged them to stop. They were crying

Zafar, former interpreter

“They stopped me at the airport and found my documents. They started beating me in front of my family, my kids. My wife and children begged them to stop. They were crying,” Zafar recalls. He subsequently started receiving phone calls and Facebook messages from Taliban members making threats. He changed his phone number, which he now doesn’t even give to close friends, and moved location, but he is ever fearful that he will be tracked down.

“[塔利班] could kill me straight away. They kill people – especially interpreters – like animals,” says Zafar, speaking in hushed tones. “There are no human rights. We’re even scared of some of our relatives and friends. They could know the Taliban, we need to be very cautious. Everything has changed. Whatever the Taliban want to do, they can do.”

Zafar is even more terrified after hearing of the death of a friend of his, also a former interpreter with the British. He says he was killed by the Taliban six months ago, along with his wife and baby daughter. “The Taliban went to his house and killed him,“ 他说. “There is no media to cover this. The international community can’t see what’s happening to people here. We need help.”

He is now so fearful that he tells his wife and children – aged eight, 五, four and two – to avoid going outside, describing them as “detainees” in their own home. He sees them at the most once a month when they take the risk of travelling to a relative’s home in the province he lives in. Appealing to the British government, 他说: “Please pay attention to the interpreters who supported the UK forces. We risked our lives. We did our jobs, and this is the time for the UK people to do this for us.”

*Not his real name

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