The artist donated More Passion to the Government Art Collection in 2011.
Writing on Instagram the 58-year-old said she had requested the piece be removed in protest at allegations of parties at the residence during lockdown.
She said: “This is my neon that hangs at 10 Downing Street. It was a gift from myself to the Government Art Collection.
“I am now in the process of requesting that my artwork be removed from 10 Downing Street.
“I feel More Passion is the last thing this present government needs. This current situation is shameful.”
Emin donated More Passion to the Government Art Collection after being invited by Mr Cameron to create a bespoke piece.
She told The Guardian she was not asking for the artwork to be returned.
“The artwork belongs to the government, not whoever’s in power right now,” she said.
“It could hang in the British embassy in Cairo, or go back into storage. There are many places it could go, but just right at the moment I don’t think it’s a very good idea if it’s at 10 Downing Street.”
Emin caused controversy in the art world when she declared herself a Conservative supporter but later criticised Mr Cameron over his decision to hold a referendum on leaving the EU.
Known for her headline-grabbing ’90s works Everyone I Have Ever Slept With and My Bed, she revealed in 2020 she had been diagnosed with cancer.
Emin underwent major surgery and is now cancer-free.