“They’re destroying not only people and infrastructure, they also destroy nature,” said Yevgenia Zas, head of the climate department at an environmental protection group in Kyiv.
Maksym Borodin spent much of the past decade battling for an improved quality of life in the Ukrainian city of マリウポリ.
今日, his city is fighting for its very survival.
Situated on the Azov Sea, before the war Mariupol was known in Ukraine for its heavy industry and heavily polluted skies.
But in recent years a burgeoning movement of local activists and politicians have been attempting to transform its reputation — painstakingly making it a greener place to live.
That progress now looks set to be lost amongst the rubble of this city of more than 400,000 人, as Russian forces besiege Mariupol and satellite images show utter devastation.
International condemnation came after an airstrike hit a maternity hospital in the city, reportedly killing at least three people including a child. Residents trapped inside the city have said they’ve run out of water and fuel.
Before the Russian invasion, Borodin, an activist-turned-politician, was among those who felt that, however slowly, progress was being made on environmental and climate issues in Ukraine.
But as the war enters its third week, the fighting is leaving an ever-growing trail of humanitarian and environmental destruction and the hopes of many environmentalists have largely been put on hold as they scramble to protect their families and defend their country.
“It’s very hard now to even think about pollution, because we’re all concentrated on how to keep our country in one piece,” Borodin, 43, 言った 独立者 by phone from western Ukraine having fled the city with his family. “It’s a question of priorities.”
Borodin was among the leaders of the environmentalist movement in Mariupol.
He had been campaigning against air pollution for years before becoming a city councillor in 2015, and later winning a national televised competition, and funding, for his air quality monitoring project in the city.
Under the leadership of Mayor Vadym Boichenko , the city pledged millions of euros for investment in new public transport and waste infrastructure, created a “Green Council” for residents to tackle environmental issues, and redesigned a square as a “green garden” filled with dozens of species from Magnolia Daphne to Japanese spirea.
“Mariupol is on the path of a sustainable green development,” Boichenko told a conference in London in 2019. “We are building a new ecological environment.”
Last year Mariupol set out a Green City Action Plan as part of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development’s EBRD Green Cities programme, 狙う to address climate change and environmental challenges within its infrastructure.
It wasn’t just air quality that concerned residents, but water quality, soil contamination and a lack of green spaces in the city, according to Nigel Jollands, co-lead of the programme.
“They were one of the most engaged cities that we had," 彼は言った.
During his meetings with city officials and residents, Jollands said there was a sense of hope that things were changing and a sense of ownership and empowerment that they were developing a plan.
“Their vision was to have continuous economic development that went hand in hand with constant improvement in environmental quality and quality of life," 彼が追加した.
Similar stories of environmental progress can be found across Ukraine. 昨年, the country approved an ambitious Nationally Determined Contribution committing to reduce emissions by 65 percent relative to 1990 レベル.
And there had been high hopes among clean air activists that this year the country’s parliament, Verkhovna Rada, would adopt a law to combat industrial air pollution in line with a European directive on industrial emissions.
“Ukraine made a huge success in [インクルード] last years,” said Mykhailo Savenets, a researcher at the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute in Kyiv, ticking off a long list of climate and environmental initiatives. But then Russia invaded, and the majority of projects were put on hold, 彼は言った.
At the same time the conflict is leaving environmental scars of its own.
Within hours of Russia’s invasion last month, the Conflict and Environment Observatory 前記 it had recorded pollution incidents that place people and ecosystems at risk of acute and long-term harm.
In its most recent report on March 5, it said there was “growing concern” over the environmental threats that the highly destructive warfare posed in a heavily industrialised country.
“War damages ecosystems,” Mr Savenets said. “War is a great source of air, soil and water pollution,」
These problems have already reversed environmental progress, 彼が追加した, and would need to be solved before Ukraine could re-implement its environmental policies.
だが, 彼は言った, he still held out hope that when the war ends Ukrainians would build back better and faster.
Dismay at the growing destruction was a sentiment shared by Yevgenia Zas, an advocate for environmental protection who recently left the eastern city of Kharkiv that has also seen heavy fighting.
“They’re destroying not only people and infrastructure, they also destroy nature,” she said of the Russian forces.
As for Ukrainians, they are focused on survival.
“Environment today [です] not the focus," 彼女は言いました.
Nor does Zas, 29, believe it will be for Ukraine when the war eventually grinds to a halt. Even if the war stopped tomorrow, the environment, climate adaptation, and emissions reductions would be far down the agenda, 彼女は言いました. その上, 彼女は付け加えた, it was never far enough up to begin with.
しかしながら, Zas and other activists are doing what they can. They’re calling on the rest of the world to ban imports of Russian fossil fuels and to divest interests in Russian fossil fuel companies and are monitoring the environmental destruction caused by the war. Zas says she also hopes that once the fighting is over Ukraine will be able to rebuild in a sustainable and efficient way.
Another environmentalist doing what he can to help Ukraine’s war effort is Olexiy Angurets, co-founder of Dnipro Environmental Monitoring Centre, in central Ukraine.
The centre was set up to monitor pollution levels, but since the Russian invasion began last month Angurets, 46, said he has focused his attention on nuclear radiation.
So far he says levels are normal but he is concerned that with Europe’s largest nuclear power plant, Zaporizhzhia, and the Chernobyl site under Russian control things could change.
“We remember Chernobyl," 彼は言った, referring to the 1986 nuclear meltdown.
The Independent has contacted the Russian Ministry of Defence and the Russian Embassy in London for comment.
声明の中で 木曜日, the embassy claimed without providing evidence that Ukrainian “militants” had been using the maternity hospital in Mariupol as a headquarters and had driven out all patients from the site.
It also described accusations that Russia had opened humanitarian corridors to shell civilians as “beyond cynical.”
Back in Western Ukraine, Borodin, lamented that the war meant he would never know to what extent Mariupol’s environmental policies would have helped its residents. They hadn’t had enough time to find out, 彼は言った.
He hopes one day when the war is over, Europe and the United States will help Ukraine rebuild in the most environmentally-friendly way possible, with the “best available techniques.”
だが, 今のところ, the situation in the country is such that Ukrainians are forced to prioritise, 彼は言った.
“People are trying to save their lives," 彼は言った. “Mariupol, 私の家, です… totally destroyed.”