ロー対ウェイド事件とは, 英国の中絶法とは何ですか, と米国で何が違うのか?

ロー対ウェイド事件とは, 英国の中絶法とは何ですか, と米国で何が違うのか?
A Supreme Court ruling is expected to lead to abortion bans in roughly half of US states.

アメリカ 最高裁判所 has ended constitutional protections for abortion that have been in place for nearly 50 years by deciding to overturn the landmark ロー対ウェイド事件 裁定.

It is expected to lead to abortion bans in roughly half of US states.

Here is what this all means and how laws differ in the UK:

– What is Roe v Wade?

1月に 1973, the US Supreme Court ruled that a woman’s right to terminate her pregnancy was a private matter and protected by the US constitution.

A few years earlier, a 25-year-old single woman, Norma McCorvey using the name “Jane Roe”, challenged the criminal abortion laws in Texas.

She successfully challenged Henry Wade, who was the district attorney for Dallas County.

– What was the law on abortion before Roe v Wade?

当時の, abortion was illegal in Texas unless it was done to save the mother’s life.

Anti-abortion protesters celebrate following the Supreme Court’s decision (Gemunu Amarasinghe/AP)
Anti-abortion protesters celebrate following the Supreme Court’s decision (Gemunu Amarasinghe/AP)

It was a crime to get an abortion or to attempt one in 30 の 50 州.

Abortion was somewhat legal in just four states and allowed under limited circumstances in 16 その他.

– What has happened?

The US Supreme Court overturned ロー対ウェイド事件, handing decisions over whether to outlaw abortion back to individual states, and revoking the constitutional right to an abortion.

正義感 Samuel Alito, in the final opinion issued on Friday, と言いました Roe そして 計画された親子関係vケーシー, インクルード 1992 decision that reaffirmed the right to abortion, was wrong the day it was decided and must be overturned.

Authority to regulate abortion rests with the political branches, not the courts, Justice Alito wrote.

– Who supports this and why?

何十年もの間, Christian conservative groups and right-wing legal entitites alongside a “pro-life” movement across the US made religious, moral and constitutional arguments to strike down the ruling inロー対ウェイド事件.

イギリスで, charity Christian Action Research and Education (Care) said “the most compassionate societies esteem and protect” both mothers and babies.

Chief executive Ross Hendry said: “Limiting access to abortion must be accompanied by appropriate support for women experiencing crisis pregnancies, and families raising children.

“This is what a true pro-life ethic looks like.”

Spokeswoman for the Right To Life UK group, Catherine Robinson, said the ruling overturns “an unjust law” and is the “beginning of the legislative battle over abortion, certainly not the end”.

– What are those who oppose this saying?

大統領 ジョー・バイデン has said “it’s a sad day for the court and the country”.

The decision came against a backdrop of public opinion surveys that find a majority of Americans oppose overturning Roe and handing the question of whether to permit abortion entirely to the states.

Polls conducted by The Associated Press-NORC Centre for Public Affairs Research and others also have consistently shown about one in 10 Americans want abortion to be illegal in all cases.

A majority are in favour of abortion being legal in all or most circumstances but polls indicate many also support restrictions especially later in pregnancy.

イギリスで, ボリス・ジョンソン, the SNP’s Nicola Sturgeon and former Labour leader ジェレミー・コービン hit out at the decision.

ザ・ British Pregnancy Advisory Service (Bpas), the UK’s leading abortion provider, said it is “appalled”.

– What does this mean for the US?

Thirteen states, mainly in the South and Midwest, already have laws on the books that ban abortion in the event Roe is overturned.

Another half-dozen states have near-total bans or prohibitions after six weeks of pregnancy, before many women know they are pregnant.

Pro-choice activists react following the decision (Jacquelyn Martin/PA)
Pro-choice activists react following the decision (Jacquelyn Martin/PA)

Abortion access is expected to be cut off for tens of millions of women of reproductive age, according to research from Planned Parenthood.

– How does UK law differ to the US?

Abortions can take place in the first 24 weeks of pregnancy in England, スコットランドとウェールズ.

しかしながら, they have to be approved by two doctors.

They must agree having the baby would pose a greater risk to the physical or mental health of the woman than a termination.

It is allowed after this time period if there is a risk to the life of the woman, evidence of severe foetal abnormality or risk of grave physical and mental injury to the woman.

しかしながら, in Northern Ireland abortion can only be obtained if the woman’s life is at risk and in some cases of foetal abnormality.

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